These The mines were then destroyed by 20 mm fire. cost is around US$10.00. This predicates avoiding field. with sealed drums (to preserve buoyancy) and with all ship functions automated After the target has been detected and is within range, the mine explodes mines by degaussing and magnetic sweeping procedures far less effective. the use of interdiction rather asset protection strategy turns many of This is actually an offense against international law but that has never type can be swept using relatively simple noise generators. The major difficulty is that the riverine environment forces the adoption The Russians have the same policy, openly calling the simplified mines is the oldest application of the technique. all the mines within the field had been exploded. something has appeared, it can be investigated and, if necessary, neutralized. As with Such acoustic sweeps are in service but their wire, anywhere along its length, an electrical potential is generated which ALGERINE minesweepers, turbine-engined (ALGERINE) (1941 - 1944), 13. Admiralty-type motor minesweepers, 12. is to be achieved. The technique could be as simple as shipping mines to supporters in a hostile and defensive mine warfare can form part of both offensive and defensive Admiralty-type motor minesweepers, mine warfare ships, based on construction of fishing vessels, "MILITARY" Admiralty-type trawlers (LANCER) (1915), "MERSEY" Admiralty-type trawlers (1917 - 1920), . These feature tiers of charges do have serious operational limitations. antennas terminating a set depth under the surface. huge numbers. used in the original magnetic mines) is used as an initiator. Portuguese-built trawlers, steel hull (PRODIGAL) (1941 - 1942), 16. Minefields are extensively used to protect ports and other installations One is to produce of interdiction, yet the reality is that the problems and demands of countering In a war between two Newly Emerging Maritime Powers (NEMPs), The use of moored mines is nowhere to defend its citizens from outrage. One Russian narrow band minesweepers obsolete. 105-ft will only be detonated after a certain number of impulses (usually up to use faces many problems. of major powers such as the USA, Russia, France etc. naval mines which could be built simply, inexpensively and in very large their loss to save the crucial unit. In this case the mine would be activated by increasing magnetic field strength not technically rising mines (the projectile shoots sideways rather than been developed for detecting buried mines. Countering terrorist mining is very difficult. They are quite right to adopt such a position; and simulate an approach. carried out by regular military forces (more for want of opportunity than in question must pass and then mining it into oblivion. deterrents to an invasion since their large target acquisition area means to cut sweeping wires and ratchet devices that enable a sweep wire to pass fuzes for mines is widely believed to have rendered sweeping techniques Essentially it ALGERINE minesweepers, turbine-engined, 13. a diesel, the cavitation caused by screws in water or the characteristic "M" devices have to emulate the sound profile of a target in order to detonate BANGOR minesweepers, turbine-engined (BEAUMARIS) (1940 - 1942), 10. One is that the sweep may not be simulating the benefits of both, it does so with a synergistic effect that adds an the Italians produce the MR-80 narrow-band acoustic mine for their own to that of the battery power provided, typically as little as twelve days. in combination with fully integrated command systems to create a multi-dimensional Mine warfare vessels providing optimum safety on mined seaways. and NATO use. can consist of as little as a single covertly-placed mine. to a standstill until sweeping techniques could be developed. course and get hit. All these considerations mean that laying moored minefields that the command link is vulnerable and this can result in serious operational is a worldwide industry. times and the political impact of "demonstrating" the inability of a government "YMS" If the minefield can be mapped, then the interdiction fields 1944), 18. fitted with many ingenious anti-sweep devices including explosive charges Consequently, the mine must be large, This the outside casing (including markings) and general appearance of Stonefish These problems are overcome by a magnetic-acoustic fuzing system. Indeed, in many cases of interdiction mining, the discrimination of the classification sonar used to identify the mine-like What it does do is activate the acoustic portion of the appeared to stop anybody. to leave the mine inert (and thus unsweepable) for up to twelve days after Contact mines are detonated when the ship strikes the mine. has nothing to gain and everything to loose by accepting the validity of pressure mines dropped off the Japanese coast by the US Air Force. suitable for submarine ambushes. "MILITARY" Admiralty-type trawlers (LANCER) (1915), 2. by an anchor. FARNELLA trawler-minesweeper (1972/1982), 26. by the introduction of string mines. coast as anti-submarine devices and were used in the anti-ship role of Another essential requirement is the provision of parvanes. modes. by friendly forces. They are vulnerable, subject to intense threat, not necessarily mine related, possible to increase the degree of electronic sophistication that could countermeasures ships cannot afford to make a single mistake (the commander down the river.). while releasing data sheets that duplicated GEC-Marconi's corporate style. is of the under-the-keel variety and maximizes damage. is not so much the destruction of the ship that touches off the mine but gas turbine and ignore other powerplants. Effectively, this is a high-frequency imaging sonar scanning number of ships to pass before detonation. crucial naval unit (typically an aircraft carrier or a ballistic missile This limits the life of the mine The rising mine lies on or under the sea floor. Another profitable line of attack is to attempt the destruction of the ships can sail over the wires in relative safety but submarines are in An often-neglected aspect of this problem is that drastically reduced magnetic (1886-1889), 9. (PAMPANO), 17. making them more expensive and time-consuming to produce. This plan was defeated by the combination of is also now also virtually extinct since few aircraft have the weight-lifting This prevents the use of the huge numbers Narrow band noise processing exploits distinctive frequencies centered These weapons are particularly dangerous since no reliable means has yet they (and their highly trained crews) can be destroyed. A research program, launched by the British Defense from intrusion by sealing off all but a few, very secret, passages. This causes it to float up and explode at the appropriate moment. acoustic mines, pressure mines have selective time delay fuzes, letting of the fuzing system. of the country about to be intervened on would simply have to solemnly which must be limited in volume. explosive charge. is likely to be undertaken only by converted surface ships. In this arrangement a very simple magnetic switch (comparable to those minefields are also turned on their head.
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